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Cisco Cisco 350-050 CCIE Exam

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350-050 Questions & Answers

350-050 Questions and Answers

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Exam Code: 350-050

Exam Name: CCIE Wireless Exam (V2.0)

Vendor: Cisco

Certs Covered: CCIE, CCIE Wireless

No of Questions: 315

Last Updated: May 29, 2014

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IP Configuration and Verification on Cisco Routers


The Different Types of Router Modes

Before attempting to perform any IP configuration on Cisco routers, you need to know what the main operating files are that Cisco routers utilize, and what the different types of Cisco router configuration modes are.


The main operating files used by routers and the location where these files reside are shown in Table1:


TABLE 1: The main operating files used by routers

Operating File

Stored in

Basic IOS

Read-only memory (ROM)

Boot Strap

ROM

Current IOS

FLASH

Startup configuration

Non Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM)

Running configuration

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Diagnostics

ROM



After a Cisco router is accessed, the router can be placed in a number of different modes. Each router mode allows you to perform specific functions.


The different types of router modes are shown in Table 2


TABLE 2: The different types of router modes

Router Mode


Function Performed

Accessed by

User

Has a limited display which allows you to view information on the router. No configuration can be changed.

Logging in to the Cisco router

Privileged

Displays configuration of the router.


Testing can be performed.


Debugging can be performed.

Router configuration file changes can be made

In user mode, specify the enable command.

Setup

Allows you to create the initial router configuration.

When the router starts up and there is no configuration file in nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM).

RXBOOT / ROM monitor mode

The maintenance mode of a Cisco router. You can perform router recovery:

  • Password recovery

  • Restore the IOS file.

When the router starts up, press the Break key

Global configuration

Basic, simple router configuration is performed in global configuration mode:

  • Configure router names.

  • Configure router passwords, and so forth.


In EXEC privileged mode, enter the configure command.

Other configuration modes

For performing complex, intricate router configuration.

In global configuration mode, enter the appropriate command.




The different syntax for each of the other router configuration modes is listed in Table 3:


TABLE 3: The different syntax for router configuration modes

Router Configuration Mode

Router Syntax/Prompt

Interface

Router(config-if)#

Subinterface

Router(config-subif)#

Router

Router(config-router)#

Line

Router(config-line)#

Controller

Router(config-controller)#

Map-List

Router(config-map-list)#

Router-Map

Router(config-route-map)#

IPX-Router

Router(config-ipx-router)#



To check the status of the router, there are a variety of show commands that can be used to verify the router’s components’ status.


The show commands can be executed from either of these modes:

  • User mode

  • Privileged mode



A few of the typically used show commands for verifying router component status are listed in Table 4:


TABLE 4: The show commands for verifying router component status

Show command

Associated Router Component

show running-config

write terminal

Random Access Memory (RAM): Shows the active configuration file. The write terminal command can be used when the IOS version of the router is 10.3 or later.

show version

Random Access Memory (RAM): Shows hardware and software version numbers for the router.

show protocols

Random Access Memory: Shows the Network layer protocols and addresses configured on this router.

show memory

Random Access Memory: Shows statistical information on the memory of the specific router.

show flash

FLASH: Shows information on the Flash memory device.

show start-up config

Non Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM): Shows the backup configuration file.

show configuration

Non Volatile Random Access Memory: Use this command when the IOS version of the router is 10.3 or later.

show interface

Interface: Shows information on the interfaces of a router.




The IP Configuration Commands

The most common commands used for IP configuration on Cisco routers are listed in Table 5:


TABLE 5: The common commands used for IP configuration on Cisco routers

Command

Configuration Mode Used

ip host name [tcp-port-number] address1 [address2...address8]

Global configuration mode

ip route network-number network-mask {ip-address | interface} [distance] [name name]

Global configuration mode

ip name-server server-address1 [[server- address2] …server address6]

Global configuration mode

ip domain-lookup

Global configuration mode

ip routing

Global configuration mode

hostname name

Global configuration mode

enable password [level level] {password | [encryption-type] encrypted-password}

Global configuration mode

enable secret [level level] {password | [encryption-type] encrypted-password}

Global configuration mode

ip address ip-address mask [secondary] Interface mode

Interface mode

login

Line configuration mode

password value

Line configuration mode

keepalive [seconds]

Interface subcommand

exec-timeout minutes [seconds]

Line subcommand

logging synchronous

Line subcommand




The Commands for Verifying IP Configuration

The most common commands used for IP configuration verification on Cisco routers are listed in Table 6:


TABLE 6: The commands used for IP configuration verification on Cisco routers

Command

Information Displayed on

show hosts

Displays all host names and their associated IP addresses.

show interfaces [type number]

Displays statistical information on the specific interface. This includes IP address information.

show ip interface [type number]

Displays the IP configuration settings on a per interface basis.

show ip interface brief

Displays summary information on all interfaces and associated IP addresses.

show ip route [ip-address [mask] [longer-prefixes]] | [protocol [process-id]]

Displays the full contents of the routing table. When additional parameters are entered, only a subset of this information is shown.

show ip arp [ip-address] [host-name] [mac-address] [type number]

Shows the IP ARP cache information.

ping [protocol | tag] {host-name | system-address}

Used for testing connectivity. ICMP echo messages are sent and received to test connectivity.

trace [protocol] [destination]

Used to verify the current route to a host. Here, a number of UDP packets with increasing TTL values are used for verification of the route.

debug ip packet

Used to issue log messages for all IP packets.

terminal ip netmask-format {bitcount | decimal | hexadecimal}

Used to set the display type for subnet masks.




The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) IP Troubleshooting Feature

The ICMP IP troubleshooting feature can be used to manage and control the operation of TCP/IP based networks. ICMP is defined in RFC 792. ICMP is a Network layer Internet protocol, capable of reporting errors and other useful information, relating to IP packet processing. ICMP can therefore be used to control IP, and provide troubleshooting information.


At the Network layer, ICMP provides a number of messaging services.

  • Communicates error messages between devices

  • Communicates control messages between devices

  • Deals with errors associated with undeliverable IP packets

  • Indicates network congestion

  • Indicates timeout conditions.

  • Enables devices to check the status of other devices.



To do its work ICMP uses messages. The different ICMP messages are listed below:

  • Destination Unreachable: Indicates to the source host that a specific device cannot be reached to deliver the packet.

  • Source Quench: Indicates that the source is transmitting data faster that what the data can be forwarded, and requests the source to send data at a slower rate.

  • Time Exceeded: Indicates that a specific device could not be contacted within the defined time period. The packet was therefore dropped.

  • Redirect: Indicates that a router has received a packet where it is not the optimal route for the packet. This message requests the sender to use the other, better route.

  • Echo Request: Used by the Ping command to request an echo reply to verify connectivity – that a device can be reached.

  • Echo Reply: Used by the Ping command to reply to an echo request – specifies that the device can be reached.

  • Parameter Problem: Identifies a parameter which is incorrect.

  • Timestamp: Measures round-trip time to specific hosts.

  • Address Mask Request and Reply: Used to obtain the subnet mask information which should be used.

  • Router Advertisement and Selection: Used to enable hosts to dynamically learn the routers’ IP addresses which are attached to the subnet.



The ICMP Destination Unreachable message codes are:

  • Network Unreachable: Used when a router has no match in its Routing table for the destination for which the packet is intended. The Network Unreachable message code is therefore usually sent by routers.

  • Host Unreachable: Used when a router can be connected to on the destination subnet, but the specific destination host is unavailable. The Host Unreachable message code is usually received from routers.

  • Can’t Fragment: Used to indicate that the Don’t Fragment bit is specified in the packet, but the router can only forward the packet if it fragments it. In this case, the router drops the packet. The Can’t Fragment message code is usually sent by routers.

  • Port Unreachable: Used to indicate that while the packet arrived at the intended destination host, the application failed to open the destination port. The Port Unreachable message code is usually sent by the destination host.

  • Protocol Unreachable: Used to indicate that while the packet arrived at the intended destination host, the required transport layer protocol was unavailable or is not running on the specific host. The Protocol Unreachable message code is usually sent by the destination host.



The ping command uses a series of codes to indicate the different responses which it can receive. Table 7 shows the various ping command codes.


TABLE 7: The various ping command codes

Ping command code

Signifies

.

By the time that the ping command timed out, no messages were received.

!

An ICMP Echo Reply message was received.

N

An ICMP unreachable message was received – network.

U

An ICMP unreachable message was received – destination.

P

An ICMP unreachable message was received – port.

Q

An ICMP source quench message was received.

M

An ICMP Can’t Fragment message was received.

?

An unknown packet was received.




The IP Naming Commands

Names are usually preferred when working with the following commands:

  • ping command

  • trace command

  • telnet command



The main IP naming commands in Cisco IOS are shown in Table 8:


TABLE 8: The IP naming commands

Command

What is does

ip domain-lookup global configuration command.

Used to configure Cisco IOS to use a Domain Name System (DNS).

ip name-server svr1 svr2 global configuration command.

Used to configure the IP addresses of name servers.

ip host name address command

Used to configure static host names.

show hosts exec command

Used to display current host name information.




The Telnet Command Options

The different telnet command options are listed in Table 9:


TABLE 9: The different telnet command options are listed

Command

What is does

telnet exec command

Used to telnet to another device. You have to provide the host name or IP address from exec mode.

where exec command


show sessions exec command

Finds a currently suspended Telnet session

resume command. No parameters should be entered if you want to reconnect to the most recently suspended Telnet.


Pressing Enter in exec mode also reconnects to the most recently suspended Telnet.


resume x command. Here, x is the suspended Telnet session number

Resumes a currently suspended Telnet session

Press Ctrl-Shift-6, and then x

Suspends a current Telnet session.

disconnect command


quit command

Terminates a suspended telnet session







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